Pulmonary hypertension grade 1: what it is, signs
Hypertension is a pathology of organs with cavities and blood vessels, in which, as a rule, pressure rises. Pulmonary hypertension can be 1, 2 or 3 degrees. Initial, moderate hypertension of the lungs is mild, it is not characterized by symptoms that have a significant negative impact on the patient's quality of life. That is why the problem is difficult to diagnose, and in most cases it goes into a more complicated degree. It is possible to avoid complications only in one way - to undergo regular medical examination (full examination of the body).
Description of hypertension in the lungs
Mild pulmonary hypertension is very rarely diagnosed. The reason lies in the mild manifestations of the disease, which patients take for general fatigue as a result of nervous or physical exertion, colds, symptoms of hypertension.On examination of the patient, even a medical specialist rarely manages to diagnose this type of hypertension — patients rarely associate its symptoms with the manifestation of problems of the pulmonary system.
When hypertension increases pressure in the pulmonary artery and nearby blood vessels. The disease, as a rule, develops against the background of another, and is its consequence, complication. In rare cases, pulmonary hypertension grade 1 is a hereditary or genetic feature.
As a result of pathological changes in the blood vessels of the lungs, the endothelium grows (the cells of the inner layer of blood vessels and arteries), the lumen of the vessels narrows, and the blood flow and gas exchange are disturbed. The patient's body begins to suffer from a lack of oxygen, the work of the brain deteriorates due to lack of air entering the blood. Such changes impair the quality of life, but can be mistaken for pathologies of a different nature.
Causes of pulmonary hypertension
The cause of the development of pulmonary hypertension of 1 degree can be as features of the organism, heredity, and external factors:
- lack of potassium and sodium, as a result of malnutrition, high loads or chronic diseases of internal organs,
- changes in lung tissue and blood vessels on the background of bad habits or professions,
- high concentration of tryptophan in the tissues as a result of observance of incorrect diets or taking contraceptives,
- increased tone of the sympathetic nerve or viral herpes, which turned into a chronic form.
Self-medication of colds with sputum in the lungs can also provoke the development of pulmonary hypertension. Most of the popular methods of treatment of such problems do not give full recovery, the disease becomes chronic, and there is a failure in the processes of cell division within the vessels.
Pulmonary hypertension of 1 degree can develop on the background of chronic health problems - deformities of the thoracic and cervical spine with impaired blood circulation, heart disease or acute heart failure, tuberculosis, arterial vasculitis, thromboembolism or pulmonary thrombosis. If the cause lies in chronic diseases, it is much easier to identify pulmonary hypertension.The fact is that such patients often visit a doctor, undergo an instrumental examination, and they take biological materials for analysis. That is, attention to your health allows you to identify pulmonary hypertension in time and start treatment, take measures to prevent further development of the pathology.
Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension grade 1
Manifestations of the disease at its initial stage are the symptoms that the patient takes for disruption of the body for other reasons. Most patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension of 1 degree have no symptoms at all, and the pathology becomes more serious. Medical specialists recommend people at risk to pay attention to the following changes and signs:
- the appearance of shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air with slight physical exertion and at rest,
- unexplained weight loss - in the absence of disease and adequate nutrition,
- depressed mood, a feeling of powerlessness and detachment, appearing for no apparent reason,
- frequent cough and changes in voice in non-smokers and smokers,
- signs of oxygen starvation of the brain - dizziness, fainting, headaches,
- discomfort in the abdomen,
- episodes of palpitations, tachycardia with unexplained etiology.
To identify pulmonary hypertension at 1 stage of development is quite difficult. Conventional methods of diagnosis - radiography, ECG and fluorography, as a rule, is not enough. More in-depth studies are required - spirograms, CT (computed tomography of the lungs and bronchi) using contrast, blood tests for autoantibodies, a vasoreactive test and perfusion pulmoscintiography, ultrasound of the heart to obtain a more detailed picture of the state of the organ vessels.
Treatment of pulmonary hypertension grade 1
Treatment of this disease should be comprehensive and long-term, with constant monitoring of the patient's condition and tracking changes. Since pulmonary hypertension is most often a complication of another disease, therapy and other health problems are needed. Based on the study of the patient's history, treatment can be prescribed:
- supportive (replacement therapy).
The first degree of pulmonary hypertension does not require surgical intervention, and the therapeutic effect is aimed at reducing the onset of symptoms and excluding the further development of the pathology. The patient is prescribed diuretic drugs to remove excess fluid and reduce the load on the heart. An individual course of taking medications that reduce the tone of the vascular smooth muscle layer is being developed. In addition, it is recommended oxygen therapy and nutrition correction - the exclusion of heavy salts from food, reducing fluid intake.
If a patient has chronic diseases, drugs for their treatment can be prescribed - remedies for correcting blood viscosity, normalizing the liver, kidneys, immunomodulators and contraceptives (for women to prevent pregnancy before the end of treatment or stabilization of the condition). A patient diagnosed with grade 1 pulmonary hypertension should avoid infection with colds and viral diseases in order to prevent complications of the pathology.
Prevention of pulmonary hypertension
The individuality of the causes of pulmonary hypertension complicates its prevention.Medical specialists recommend preventive measures of a general type:
- rejection of bad habits and a preference for a healthy lifestyle, adherence to the correct daily routine and nutrition,
- people working in hazardous industries - compliance with safety standards and regular examination to identify characteristic pathologies,
- taking measures to strengthen the immune system - taking vitamin complexes, vaccination against colds and viral diseases, avoiding contact with patients with tuberculosis, HIV or AIDS,
- providing psychological comfort - against the background of nervous disorders often develop diseases that trigger pulmonary hypertension,
- regular sports activities, outdoor recreation, support in the living and working areas of a favorable atmosphere.
One of the best measures to prevent the development of serious pathologies in the body, including pulmonary hypertension, is a regular medical examination, during which a comprehensive examination of all body systems is carried out. As part of this service, all diagnostic methods are available to patients for free.and do not neglect such an opportunity to receive high-tech medical care. It is important to understand that pulmonary hypertension is easier to prevent than to treat.
Surgical treatment, which is prescribed for the treatment of later stages of pulmonary hypertension - 2 or 3, leads to the development of concomitant diseases, a significant reduction in the quality of life, disability. That is, it is better to recognize the disease at an early stage and cure it. In addition, the later stages are often inoperable, and the majority of patients with such a diagnosis simply cannot be saved.
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