When did the internet appear?
The Internet is an international system of unified computer networks built on IP protocols and their routing. Officially, at the beginning of 2012, the number of registered users on the Internet reached 2.3 billion people. The Internet is used in e-business, communications and media. Through the Internet, people can watch movies, listen to music, read books, and communicate with each other. So when did the internet come about?
Not every one of us knows that such a phenomenon of modern life as the Internet has been for more than forty years. The foresight of this medium of information transmission was foreseen by many figures of the 19th and 20th centuries. So the Russian writer Odoyevsky and the English writer Forster almost with a century-long difference described in their novels the appearance of an automatic system serving humanity. Such fantasies as Isaac Ayzimov, Sergey Snegov, Boris and Arkady Strugatsky picked up the same idea in their works. But few of them thought that the question of what year the Internet appeared would have an answer so soon.The development of technology and electronics in the twentieth century went so fast that only a couple of decades after the Second World War, humanity in its development made a global leap.
The history of the development of the Internet in the world
So in what year did the Internet appear? Here is a phased chronology of the development of this mass phenomenon:
- 1957 - After the launch of the Soviet satellite, the US Department of Defense commissioned the Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop a single reliable computer network in case of war.
- 1961 - publication of Leonard Kleinrock's research on packet switching became the basis for DARPA specialists.
- September 2, 1969 - the first ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) server was installed at the University of California; its RAM was only 24 KB.
- October 29, 1969 - the first communication session between the first two ARPANET servers, which were 640 kilometers away, was successfully launched. The session was led by Charlie Kline (University of California) and Bill Duvall (Stanford Institute). At 21:00, the first attempt was made to transmit the word LOGIN, but only three LOG characters were sent, after which the network was deactivated.At 10:30 pm, the session was restored and successfully completed. This date is considered the birthday of the Internet.
- 1972 - the first e-mail program was launched, which immediately became popular, TELNET and FTP file transfer protocol appeared.
- 1973 - the network received international status due to the connection via a telephone cable with Norway and the UK.
- January 1, 1983 - The ARPANET computer network changed the NCP protocol to TCP / IP, which is successfully used today. In addition, the concept of “Internet”, which we all know, has stuck to the ARPANET network.
- 1984 - The appearance of the NSFNet (National Science Foundation Network), developed by the United States National Science Foundation. This network had a large bandwidth and immediately made the competition ARPANET.
- 1988 - The IRC protocol was created, which helped the emergence of real-time communication (chat).
- 1989 - British scientist Tim Berners-Lee proposed his original concept for creating the World Wide Web, developed the HTML language, the HTPP protocol, a URL identifier, and the World Wide Web (WWW) visualization program.
- 1990 - ARPANET ceased to exist, giving way to NSFNet.
- 1991 - The World Wide Web got its public accessibility and immediately became popular thanks to the MOSAIC browser.
- 1995 - The World Wide Web has overtaken the FTP file transfer protocol in popularity.
- 1996 - The concept of the World Wide Web is replaced by the concept of the modern Internet.
The history of the Internet in Russia
When did the Internet appear in Russia? Usually, the history of the birth of the Russian-speaking part of the Internet (Runet) is described by the following major landmarks:
- August 22, 1990 - the scientific network of the Institute of Atomic Energy and IPK Minavtoproma first connected to the Internet, so this day is considered the day of the birth of the Russian Internet.
- September 19, 1990 - the first domain of the Soviet Union .su was registered in the international database.
- April 7, 1994 - the first domain of the Russian Federation. Ru was registered in the international database.
Today, Internet connection in Russia and around the world, possibly through cable television, telephone, radio channels, communication satellites, cellular communications. Officially in Russia, the day of the Internet is celebrated on September 30.
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